04-15 21 12204 大卫王
原创翻译:真人棋牌游戏大厅下载 http://www.ltaaa.com 翻译:大卫王 转载请注明出处

A nationalliving wage is on the table. Now let’s talk about a global living wage


Australia’s HarvesterJudgement of 1907 defined a living wage as ‘fair and reasonable’ paymentsufficient for an unskilled worker to support a family in reasonable comfort.


Theidea of the living wage is back on the political agenda. In the United Statesthe Democrats are proposing to double the federal minimum wage. In Australiathe federal Labor Party has promised to deliver a living wage.


“A living wage should make sure people earn enough tomake ends meet, and be informed by what it costs to live in Australia today –to pay for housing, for food, for utilities, to pay for a basic phone and dataplan,” Opposition leader Bill Shorten said this week.

反对党领袖Bill Shorten本周表示:“应该了解现在澳大利亚生活的成本——衣、食、住、用、行的费用,以便保障人们的收入可以维持生计。”

Theprinciple of the living wage is the subject of my book published in January. Towrite the book I spent five years researching working conditions in countriesincluding Australia, Bulgaria, Cambodia, India and Thailand.



Twelveyears later the principle was enshrined in international labour law, when theInternational Labour Organisation was established in 1919. It defined a livingwage as one “adequate to maintain a reasonable standard of life as this isunderstood in their time and country”.


Acentury on, Australia’s industrial relations system has long abandoned thecentral premise of the living wage. Around the world being paid enough to liveon remains elusive. We are all intimately connected to many of these workers.They have assembled the phones we handle. They have sewn our clothes.


Bangladeshi garmentworker Marium lost her left arm when an eight-storey building in Dhakacollapsed in April 2012. A reported 1,134 workers died in the tragedy.


Womenin Bangladesh who make clothes for brands such as Big W, Kmart, Target andCotton On earn as little as 51 cents an hour, according to an Oxfam reportpublished last month.

乐施会上月发布的一份报告显示,孟加拉国为Big W、Kmart、Target和Cotton等品牌制作服装的女性每小时的工资仅为51美分。

Thereport is based on interview with 470 garment workers in Bangladesh andVietnam. Three-quarters of the Vietnam workers and all of the Bangladeshiworkers earned less than a living wage (as calculated by the Global Living WageCoalition).


Fear of capital flight


Itis very hard for workers to mobilise for higher wages in many countries aroundthe world. In January 5,000 garment workers in Bangladesh were sacked after going on strike for higher wages.During protests, police shot dead one worker. More than 50 others were injured.Striking garment workers in Cambodia have also been shot dead by police duringprotests.


Cambodian garmentworkers assist a woman injured during a protest in Phnom Penh on January 3,2014.


Especiallyin price-sensitive industries, globalisation exerts strong pressure ongovernments to keep minimum wages low, lest any increase lead to “capitalflight”. This competition pits countries in a race to the bottom.


Shouldlabour costs go up in Bangladesh, for example, its government fears garmentbrands moving production to, say, Ethiopia. It’s a legitimate fear; in my 15years of research I’ve seen whole garment factories dismantled and truckedacross borders to countries where the labour is cheaper.


Cooperation is the answer


Theobvious solution would be for countries to cooperate and raise minimum wagescollectively and incrementally (at an agreed percentage every year). Thisapproach would help overcome “first mover risk”. Business would have lessincentive to look for cheaper labour elsewhere.



Emulating trade law


However,there is one area of international law that comes close to what we usuallythink of as law: international trade and investment law.


Inaddressing goals like reducing tariffs, countries faced similar coordinationproblems. Beginning with the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, which cameinto effect in 1948, half a dozen major multilateral trade deals werenegotiated before the agreement in 1994 to establish the World TradeOrganisation.


TheWTO has since adjudicated hundreds of disputes in which one nation has accusedanother of failing to meet its WTO commitments. Investors can also take statesto tribunals to seek compensation for unfair behaviour. States take thesetribunals very seriously.


Whynot emulate this architecture of international trade law for living wages?



Insteadof having separate national conversations about living wages, now is a goodtime to start the conversation at a global scale.

原创翻译:真人棋牌游戏大厅下载 http://www.ltaaa.com 翻译:大卫王 转载请注明出处

Graeme Bennett
ThoseCambodian textile workers taking their government to court would be putting theirlives in jeopardy.
TheWest can’t fix itself, let alone impose solutions on the developing world. Unless you are proposing force be usedagainst recalcitrant governments it would seem we are just virtue signalling


Kaplan Barla
No,We are suffering from cognitive dissonance.
Weare living in a resource rich continent with only 25 million people, and herewe are talking about:
“A living wage should make sure people earn enough to make ends meet,and be informed by what it costs to live in Australia today – to pay forhousing, for food, for utilities, to pay for a basic phone and data plan,”
strugglingto make ends meet ..hahaaa … I’m going insane :)

不, 我们的认知是错误的。


Kaplan Barla
…or as Norway does.
Australiais famous for its commodity wealth. You name it, Australia more often than nothas it in abundance. Australia recently overtook Qatar to become the world’slargest exporter of gas (LNG). And yet, we pay so much more than our customersdo in Asia. Australian gas is being sold for less to overseas customers than tolocal customers despite the costs of liquefaction and shipping.
Thisis absurd!
Theproblem is NOT about HOW much money we should have in our pockets to pay forbasic needs.
Theproblem is about WHO owns and controls resources and sets the price for basicneeds.
(ofcourse you know all this but I keep saying this for the sake of others.)


Mark Osborne
Wedo own the resources. The states (Crownor us) own them. They lease tenements toorganisations with the skills, knowledge and investment power to monitise whatare effectively rocks. The states earnroyalties on the profits as a result.
Ifyou believe this is a simple process, then go find a rock and sell it.
I’mnot saying it is perfect but your statements are factually incorrect.


Kaplan Barla


Kaplan Barla回复Mark Osborne
You won’t answer, Okay. Then I will answer. Thestatement you are referring to is this one: The problem is about WHO owns andcontrols resources and sets the price for basic needs.
Confrontedwith a phrase I used in a non-literal sense for rhetorical effect, Mark Osbornesought safety in semantics.
Ofcourse he’s right.
I’m“factually incorrect”.
I’mfactually incorrect, too, when I say “we sold public utilities to privatesector”. In fact, we did not sell them. We leased them to private companies fora certain number of years.
Weleased our utilities to private companies because we wanted to get shafted somuch.
Duckingsemantics! – My butt hurts.

对于我使用一个非字面意义的修辞短语,Mark Osborne要求在语义上准确无误。


Inmentioning this, Shorten undermines his own argument. Why not simply addressthe mechanisms that have made housing, food, utilities and basic phone and dataplans so expensive?


Tim Arden
umbecause its due to failures of government policy. This way Shorten makes itsomeone else’s problem to deal the with symptom rather than as a politiciantaking responsibility for failure of government policies, the cause, and takingresponsibility for fixing policy failures.


Kaplan Barla
Insteadof addressing, why not look at other countries where they perfected themechanism – Nordic Model?
Arewe stupid in Australia?


Noel Bugeia
Forsome reason a series of posts were moderated out.
Someonesaid the Nordic model was based on oil revenues and when they dried up theNordic model would go the way of the dodo.
Thewhole of Scandanavia, not just Norway do the welfare state right.
Mycomment was that while this Might be true for Norway and Denmark, Sweden andFinland have no oil at all. How can the last two be explained sans Oil?
(Can’tfir the life of me understand why these comments (and not just mine) wereouted. Relevant and a legitimatedebating point.)


Kaplan Barla回复Noel Bugeia
Ithappens to everyone. Bite the bullet, as I sometimes do in this blog.


Shelley Marshall回复Matthew WilliamTomczyk
Ithink that is a great point. What do youhave in mind in terms of addressing increases in food, housing, utilities andbasic phone and data plans?



Matthew William Tomczyk
“Youappear to be attacking the only ones at least trying to resolve very real wageissues.”


Shortenhimself is implying that the issue isn’t wages, but the fact that wages areabsorbed by a handful of consumer goods. Shorten is turning this around, byclaiming it’s employers who aren’t paying enough, when in reality Australiansare some of the highest earners in the world.
IfShorten said that he would begin dismantling every policy that causes highproperty prices I’d be all for it.


Tony Dickson回复Matthew WilliamTomczyk
Actually,I suggest a significant aspect of inflated housing prices is consequent to theHowards Govt’s idiotic “reforms” to Keating’s original CGT, which included the50% discount. However, it is arguable that of more significance was doing awaywith indexation of capital gains.The result of this was to make inflationtaxable, rather than real increases in asset prices. This strongly discouragedlong term investment in housing stock in favour of quick turnover speculation.
Thereare so many ways in which neo-liberal ideologues demonstrate a lack ofunderstanding of economics.
Iagree that negative gearing is another significant factor. However, effectivelylegislating a cogent distinction between legitimate business financing costsand speculative borrowing is not easily achieved without risking collateraldamage.


Kaplan Barla
“A living wage should make sure people earn enough to make ends meet,and be informed by what it costs to live in Australia today – to pay forhousing, for food, for utilities, to pay for a basic phone and data plan,”


Amazing!How is this possible?
Thesecorporations are gonna feel sorry for us and reduce prices?



Glenda Bunning
OurGovernment has deliberately allowed colonisation of Australia by multinationalcorporations and home grown service providers and contractors. The PublicService has been rebuilt as a far right deliverer of ideology.
Privateersstrip assets, harvest as much as possible and then leave the third world theycreat behind taking off with profits.
Mumblingabout living wages and believing we have any power left is a waste of time now.
Hitlerused privatisation as a tool in his conquest of Germany and control of workers.At least he had a plan and supported favourites at home. Unlike our Politicalsalespersons who seem unaware of what they have done or the consequences. Thoseconsequences will not be easily undone now though after contracts and dealshave been signed locking winner/loser positions.


Enzo Fable回复Garry Baker
Iwould have thought the main reason for Shorten’s/Labor’s demand for a livingwage instead of a minimum wage was to recognise the very issues you mentionrelated to privatisation. Similarly, Shorten repeatedly calls for a fairerprocess to enable consideration for higher pay packets.
TheFair work Commission is beholden to the parameters the Government of the daysets.
Lookno further than the current government as the greatest obstacle. All data showsthe correlation between the current governments reign and wage growth goingbackwards and not keeping pace with living cost issues you raise.

我认为Shorten (反对党领袖)/劳工组织要求领基本生活工资而不是最低工资的主要原因是你提到的与私有化有关的问题。Shorten反复呼吁采用更公平的流程来提高工资待遇。

Enzo Fable
“Proletarier aller Länder, vereinigt euch!”


Trev Astle
Wow—nowonder that there is no such thing as a Free Trade deal!


John Kampert
Indeed,there are only “Make the corporations rule” deals.


Dean Taylor
Ilove this in principle, but how do you overcome the ‘agent’s fees’ problem?
Here,‘skilled’ migrants in areas with very common skills pay a significantproportion of their wages to agents to secure them a job, much of which thengoes back to the employer. What’s to stop companies in Bangladesh engagingagent’s to rake back a chunk of the wages for a $10 or $20 per day job?


Shelley Marshall回复Dean Taylor
Youraise a very valid point in my mind. Agents fees are indeed a big problem in many countries around theworld. Families go into a lot of debt topay agents to place family members in work.
Itis my understanding that agents thrive in environments of high inequality, whencertain sectors pay a lot more than other sectors. People are willing to payagent fees because of the rewards of working in that sector. However, when minimum wages work to equalisethe pay of low wage workers, agents are less attractive.


Margaret Quillen
Anexcellent idea whose time has come. The vehicle for creating this transition toa humanised economy, as distinct from a corporatised one, is co-operation.International trades-unionism will be essential as will be the revival ofinternational friendship societies, people’s tours of other countries toexamine and understand living conditions and develop common programs.
Democracywill be the governing principle of this process.
Ifthe ruling classes oppose this then they need to be taught that there is nosafe place to run or hide from the people’s wrath.



Noel Bugeia
Itwould only not work because there are too many shrill voices on the right whowould decry giving free money to “shirkers and lay abouts”. There are enough of them now who wouldprefer there was no social security system.
TheRepublicans in the US would love to dismantle the whole show. And I think thesame thinking applies here, deep down.
Unlessof course, you are a big company and you want tax breaks and direct governmentassistance to establish or grow your business. But no governing regulations ofcourse. That would stifle capitalism and interfere in the market…


Shelley Marshall回复Matt Arthurs
Thanksfor your comment. Which part is‘childish’, in your view, if you think a living wage for all would be great?


Shelley Marshall回复Mick Shadwick
Thanksfor your comment. Which part wouldn’twork, in your opinion? Is it that thereis unlikely to ever be political will?


Shelley Marshall回复Kien Choong
Thanks. The proposal depends on countries agreeing toraise the minimum wage, as a starting point. The point is to have coordination around doing so.


Kumudhu Alwis
India’sopposition is proposing a living wage for its billions. Is the writer taken apage from the Indian elections?


Shelley Marshall回复Kumudhu Alwis
Thanksfor your comment. I have indeed takeninspiration from India. A living wage is enshrined in the IndianConstitution. Under law, India’s minimumwage is supposed to be a living wage. The problem is that it has not beenincreased in line with living costs. However, there is very good evidence thatthe Indian minimum wage has made a great deal of difference to workers in termsof lifting them out of poverty.


Enzo Fable
Thefact the concept of a living wage may be adopted is excellent however is onlythe first step. The inevitable political angle always remains that theGovernment of the day defines the rules for the government entity as to theparameters it can apply. There would be little doubt that this is why India’sliving wage has not increased in line with living costs. That likely won’t happenuntil it is again politically expedient.



Kumudhu Alwis
“adequate to maintain a reasonable standard of life as this is understoodin their time and country”.
Thequestion is do the farm workers in these countries earn enough to feed theclothes workers?
Wein the West are supremists


Graeme Bennett
Iwas about to make that point. InAustralia in 1907 a much larger proportion of the population was living off theland. My paternal grandfather had areally tough existence with his father abandoning the family when mygrandfather was 14. My father tells thestory of being asked in class about the books they had at home. None. A living wage in 1907 would seem to have been either a judicial fantasyor brought into being to benefit unionists.


Shelley Marshall
Whatis the argument against paying workers a living wage for their work? How would you justify paying someone below aliving wage if they worked hard and full-time?


Graeme Bennett
Whereto start? It is like the 30 year oldworkers at McDonalds in the GFC demanding an increase in their wages as if astart-up job was a career. If workerswant something they are responsible for reaching their goals. If you want to kill off a lot more retailers(a dozen or so chains over the last year) increasing minimum wages by 10% wouldbe a great start.
As I mentioned a legislated ‘living’ wagewould not apply to farmers or for that matter small business owners. Extending the concept globally would ensuremany underdeveloped nations never got to put their foot on the lowest rung ofthe ladder. You seem to believe textilesare a natural part of every countries’ mix of industries as if there is someperfect model that all countries should share. It doesn’t work. Economies evolveover time. Countries should specialisewhere they have an advantage and trade with those who have differentadvantages.



David Jenkins
Companyprofits have grown on average by 5.1% p.a over the last ten years, compared to2.6% for wages. At the same time the wages share of national income has fallenwhile the profit share has increased.
Sure,profits are volatile over a year compared to wages, so you have to be cautiousabout data that is relatively short term - but the longer term trend is clear.As Matthias Cormann himself pointed out, the industrial relations laws we havehave been specifically designed to achieve exactly this outcome


Brad Elliott
Ithink you are assuming that an international minimum wage would be the same inall countries although the article talks about percentage increases. It wouldnot be fair to have the same minimum wage in all countries due to the verydifferent cost of living structures. At present wages are forming a decreasingshare of GDP while profit is taking an increasing share driving up inequality.
Capitalis free to move while labour is not. There needs to be modifications from thepure model that you propose. US workers have not had a real increase in pay forover 50 years even though there has been large increases in the GDP and profits.As Australia signs up to more extreme trade deals we can expect the sameunhealthy result as experienced there.


Brad Elliott
50years is a long period of no real wages growth in the US. Nothing to do withminers there. Everything to do with earlier start of extreme free trade.


Graeme Bennett回复Brad Elliott
No,not assuming that.
Theanswer is simple. Everyone can become aconsultant, set up a company and join in the feasting.
Slightlymore seriously America continues to attract low skilled emigrants from Southand Central America. They must have aproblem absorbing that flow. Increasingwages would only accelerate the inflow. The instability would become too much. Add to that increased levels of unemployment and the issues that flowfrom that and I can’t imagine a good result.



Shelley Marshall
Thecall for a living wage has come from the economic south, not developedcountries. Check outhttps://asia.floorwage.org/ for example.


Jay Somasundaram
Thankyou for raising a major social issue and proposing a novel solution.
Butis it in the interest of the poorest countries to raise their minimum wage?Their wages are a competitive advantage, and global businesses are willing toput up with poor infrastructure because they make up those costs with wages.
Ifa poor country institutes a minimum wage, the global business would move itsproduction elsewhere and the country would be left worse off. Trade agreementsare achieved because both countries see mutual benefits and increases in trade.Forcing the poorest countries to sign or else be embargoed is bullying.
Itis not a question asking the poorest nations to put aside their “immediateself-interest”. Without the money coming in, they have no hope of feedingthemselves, much less investing in the infrastructure that would make them morecompetitive. On, the other hand, if we provided aid - support for those whowould be unemployed and building infrastructure - we may get a fair deal.

首页 > 网帖翻译 > 美国
讨论 21
游客 您尚未登录
真人棋牌游戏大厅下载提示: 关闭